Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthesis

Introduction  The electron transport chain and ATP Synthesis is a series of four protein complexes that couple redox reactions, creating an electrochemical gradient that leads to the creation of ATP in a complete system called oxidative phosphorylation. It occurs in the mitochondria in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In the first, electrons come from the … Read more


Abstract Water is transported across epithelial membranes in the absence of hydrostatic or osmotic gradients. A good example is the small intestine, where 10 litres of water are absorbed each day. Although water absorption is secondary to active solute transport, the coupling mechanism between solute and water flux is not understood. We have tested the … Read more

Electron Transport System and Formation of ATP

The electron transport chain (ETC) is the main source of ATP production in the body and is vital for life. The earlier stages of respiration generate electron-carrying molecules, such as NADH, to be used in the ETC. Clinically, some molecules interfere with the electron transport chain, which can be life-threatening. Electron Transport System and Formation … Read more

3 Advantages Of Polyclonal Antibodies

Polyclonal antibodies are heterogeneous and complex mixtures of immunoglobulins produced by different B cells, which recognize different epitopes within the same antigen. These characteristics give polyclonal antibodies some virtues compared to monoclonal ones in certain applications, techniques and / or tests. In this entry we collect 3 advantages of polyclonal antibodies that make them the reagents of … Read more